West Ham have had a loan offer for Harry Maguire dismissed by Manchester United and a £45m bid for João Palhinha turned away by Fulham. West Ham are looking to spend after selling Declan Rice to Arsenal for £105m and are stepping up their interest in two of their key targets.

They want to replace Rice with two midfielders – along with targeting Palhinha, talks are being held over a move for Ajax’s Edson Álvarez – and David Moyes’s desire to bring in a central defender led him to set his sights on Maguire.

United are ready to listen to offers for Maguire, who is considering his options after being told he is not part of Ten Hag’s long-term plans, but moving him will not be easy. West Ham are exploring a loan, potentially with an option to buy, and it is understood they feel the cost of signing the England centre-back on a permanent deal is too expensive.

Maguire received a considerable salary increase as a result of United qualifying for the Champions League and his terms are too high for West Ham, who also see little value in paying a big fee for a 30-year-old. United signed Maguire for £80m four years ago and although they are expected to make a big loss on him they are keen to raise their budget for the rest of the window by selling unwanted players.

Buyers could be thin on the ground as Maguire’s stock has fallen during his time at Old Trafford and he made only eight starts in the Premier League last season. The former Leicester defender could be faced with a choice over whether to stick it out at United or accept a move. Maguire needs to play regularly to keep his place in the England squad before Euro 2024.

Moyes wants competition for Nayef Aguerd and Kurt Zouma, who has a patchy fitness record. West Ham have handed a new deal to Angelo Ogbonna but the Italian is 35 while there are doubts over Thilo Kehrer’s future.

West Ham are under pressure to spend after selling Rice but they have not been quick off the mark. Fulham are demanding £80m for Palhinha and West Ham are not optimistic about their chances of landing the Portugal international, who excelled after joining Fulham from Sporting last summer, although there have been suggestions that £50m could be enough.

Álvarez is another option for West Ham but there are concerns over the fees associated with signing the Mexico international. He was close to joining Borussia Dortmund last month, only for the deal to collapse during negotiations. Ajax want £45m for Álvarez, who almost joined Chelsea last summer.

West Ham have explored signing the Juventus midfielder Denis Zakari on loan and are expected to lose out to Newcastle in the race to sign the Leicester winger Harvey Barnes. West Ham’s other midfield targets include Bristol City’s Alex Scott, Southampton’s James Ward-Prowse and Everton’s Amadou Onana.